- Temperature: This is a measure of how hot or cold the air is. It is measured in degrees Celsius (°C) or Fahrenheit (°F). The average global temperature is about 15°C (59°F).
- Atmospheric pressure: This is the weight of the air above a given point. It is measured in units such as millibars (mb) or hectopascals (hPa). The average atmospheric pressure at sea level is about 1013 mb (29.92 inHg).
- Wind: This is the movement of air from an area of high pressure to an area of low pressure. It is measured in terms of speed (miles per hour or kilometers per hour) and direction (from which direction the wind is blowing).
- Humidity: This is a measure of how much water vapor is in the air. It is expressed as a percentage of the maximum amount of water vapor that the air can hold at a given temperature.
- Precipitation: This is any form of water that falls from the atmosphere to the ground, such as rain, snow, sleet, or hail. It is measured in millimeters or inches.
- Cloudiness: This is the amount of the sky that is covered by clouds. It is expressed as a percentage, from 0% (clear sky) to 100% (completely overcast).
- Sunshine duration: This is the amount of time that the sun is shining in a given location. It is measured in hours.
These seven elements interact with each other to create the weather that we experience every day. For example, changes in temperature can cause changes in air pressure, which can lead to changes in wind speed and direction. Changes in humidity can cause changes in cloud formation and precipitation. And so on.